Conn 10M (Ladyface) tenor saxophone
USA (Distributed in the UK by Lafleur, London)
Guide price: Varies according to condition
Date of manufacture: 1930something
Date reviewed: June 2002
A top-of-the-range pro horn from the 1930s
that maintains its status even today
Of all the vintage saxes that come through the workshop, the 10M
(and its alto counterpart, the 6M 'underslung) really 'does it for
me'. I freely admit to being a fan of modern instruments - I like
the slickness of the action, the free blowing feel, the relative
neutrality of tone - something which many vintage horns lack. This
is no bad thing, if what they lack are the things you don't much
like in modern horns, but the 10M excels in that it combines the
best of both worlds.
It's also known as the Ladyface, due to a portrait of a woman's
head engraved on the bell. Later models were more 'extensively engraved',
which led to its other nickname...the Naked Lady.
Rumour has it that the more of the lady you can see, the better
The build quality of these horns is generally excellent. They were
made in a time when accountants were where they belonged - out in
a back office filling out payslips and adding up petty cash receipts.
This left the craftsmen and women to get on with the job in hand,
which is why a well cared for 10M is every bit as good today as
it was when it was built.
The design is relatively simply by today's standards, with few
of the features you'd expect to find on a top-flight horn. There's
no adjustable thumb hook, the bottom bow joint is soldered and the
thumb rest is rather on the small side.
Like a lot of vintage horns, the brace that runs between the bell
and the body is not that stout, comprising just a single bar with
a woefully inadequate base plate on the body. If the horn takes
a knock to the bell the implications for damage to the body are
very great. With this in mind you should never even consider using
a soft case for one of these instruments (or any other really).
Similarly, the bell key guards are little more than stout wire
cages - with no provision for adjusting the bumper felts once they've
been fitted. This isn't such a big deal though, it's generally a
one-time job anyway.
The body is of single-pillar construction, which was the norm for
the day. There are pros and cons to this type of construction, but
it's worth noting that many modern horns still use this type of
build. The jury's out as to whether it makes any difference tonally,
but that doesn't stop manufacturers from highlighting it as a tonal
feature in their product blurb. That said, they're just as likely
to highlight ribbed construction for exactly the same reasons...
10M has rolled tone holes. No-one really knows whether or not this
is a good thing. From an entirely mechanical point of view the fact
that the holes are rolled mean that they impart a little extra bracing
to the body - and are subsequently far harder to level out in the
event of damage. As you might realise, these horns require that
you take rather more care looking after them than your average modern
Some say that the increased surface area of the tone hole rim will
mean the pads seat better, others (like myself) point out that less
surface area makes for a better seal due to the finger pressure
being distributed over a far smaller area (it's why you don't want
to let anyone wearing stilettos walk across your polished wood floor).
There's also the issue of the pads being inclined to stick more
due to the increased contact area. If your sole reason for buying
a horn is because it has rolled toneholes, it'd be worth your while
having a read of this article
on toneholes first.
The angle of the crook may cause the player to raise an eyebrow.
In comparison to modern instruments it's set a little lower, which
means you have to raise the horn slightly higher in relation to
the embouchure position. It's not uncomfortable, but it might take
a little while to get used to it.
The crook is not that well braced - again, a common problem with
vintage instruments - and once again due care should be taken when
the horn is in transit. If it cops a whack, that wire brace is likely
to punch its way into the tubing just above the tenon sleeve - and
that can be very expensive to fix.
It's also a good reason to avoid fitting the mouthpiece once the
crook is fitted to the horn. This is when 'pulldown' is most likely
to occur - the force of carelessly pushing the mouthpiece on bends
the crook tube down. Best to play it safe and fit the mouthpiece
before fitting the crook to the horn.
As for the action - well, this is where the horn really comes into
its own. There's really no other sax quite like it. The 10M is capable
of supporting the lowest, fastest, lightest action out there - with
comparatively little loss of tone or detriment to tuning. Quite
why this is I do not know, it's just the way the instrument is built
- just bear mind that to keep it running like this it will need
more frequent checking and adjustment because of the point screw
design...and here's why.
In an attempt to build in a degree of adjustability into the action,
Conn used a shoulderless point screw
held in place by a small grub screw at 90 degrees to the point screw.
In theory this method ought to work quite well - in practice the
grub screws are too small to properly secure the point screw and
end up either splitting or corroding solid in the pillar.
For the player this means having the action adjusted on a regular
basis, or putting up with noisy action and occasional leaks. For
the repairer it's hell on earth - and quite a few will charge you
more for sorting the action out on these instruments.
There are workarounds, the most drastic of which entails cutting
larger lock screw holes - but then this diminishes from the horn's
originality and with instruments like this it's almost a duty to
take such issues into consideration. Far better to make use of modern
materials, such as threadlock solutions or nylon inserts - which
are completely reversible and quite effective at locking the point
screws in place.
If you decide to use a threadlock, Loctite 243 is the one to go
for. I've seen repairers advocating the use of weaker types (such
as Loctite 222) - but these types simply don't have the staying
power over a period of time. Loctite 243 is a medium-strength solution
and, most importantly, it has some resistance to oil and grease.
I would recommend removing the point screw and degreasing both it
and the pillar before refitting the screw with a drop of Loctite
on it. I would also very strongly recommend that you do so with
the lock screw in place (if it exists) - and adjusted just enough
to allow the point screw to pass through the pillar. This helps
prevent the threadlock from getting on the threads of the grub screw...which
can be a nuisance later on.
With that said, a bit of heat will loosen the cured threadlock should
you ever find yourself with an apparently stuck screw.
keywork has a couple of extra features - a G# trill just below the
low F key, and an Eb trill - actuated by a key on top of the low
E key whilst the F and D key fingers are forked. This actuates a
small key cup round the back of the instrument, as seen here on
It's common to see this key cup wedged closed - few players use
this trill these days, it simply adds weight to the action and is
another thing to go wrong. Reversing the spring on the trill key
cup is the common method of adapting the action - though a bit of
cork wedged under the trill cup guard will do the job just as well,
if less elegantly. The example here has been reverse sprung permanently
If you require the use of this key it's vital to ensure that the
pad seats correctly and that there's no excessive wear in the action.
The bell key cluster is neat and tidy, and quite slick in action
even though it's quite basic. The positioning might take some getting
used to though, but note how the low Bb spatula extends round from
the back of the cluster to cover the top on the arrangement, which
give you more options when going back and forth between B and Bb.
The G# key is particularly nice, being rather more of a long lever
than its modern counterparts. What this means is that relative spring
tension here can be set quite high without making the G# action
excessively heavy under the finger, which should help prevent sticky
The C# key is a single piece, directly sprung, so it's heavier than
on a modern horn - but the generous touchpiece gives you plenty
to press down upon.
for playability, well, what a delight. This horn has it all, and
more besides. Tonewise I find it uniquely capable of giving either
that typically warm, full bodied ooomph that you'd expect from a
fine vintage horn whilst still being able to produce a sound so
edgy you could cut glass with it. Get the mouthpiece choice right
and you can do either/or.
The action is an inspiration - to play faster. Yes, it's nice to
wallow in that lovely broad tone but there's something about a well
set up 10M that positively demands you try out your fastest, flashiest
licks on it. And the best of it is that it's right there with you,
it just never seems to trip over itself.
The tuning is good too, most vintage horns have their quirks - as
does the 10M, but nothing that barely a few hours playing won't
It's worth bearing in mind that although the 10M range ran from
around 1935 to 1959, Conn dropped the rolled tone hole feature around
1948. To all intents and purposes this shouldn't have made any difference
- but if you play a rolled tone hole model alongside a plain tone
hole version you'll notice that there is a difference, and the later
version has a brighter, less rounded tone. This has nothing to do
with losing the tone hole roll itself, it's simply about a change
in the bore design. I've played some truly wonderful rolled tone
hole models, and some simply unimpressive plain tone hole models...I'll
leave you to draw your own conclusions.
So if you're after a vintage horn that combines the best of the
golden age of American horns with the slickness of today's CNC made
instruments - this is your baby. There is only one question that
remains to be asked...why did they stop making it?